Ship Handling and Maneuvering
It is increasingly accepted within the marine industry the use of simulators as a medium for training mariners. Couple of instances simulation has been brought to existent training courses without significant course redevelopment in order that simulation bestows beneficially to training course objectives. However lack of standardization in simulator-based courses has resulted in this respect.
It is a widely accepted fact that the use of virtual environments for training becomes beneficial in order to meet the objective of the training such as this. But a lot of disputes remain such as:
- providing personalized embedded instruction during practice sessions
- providing level of faithfulness consistent with the instructional goals of the trainer
- delivering these capabilities effectively so as to encourage trainees to better understand its goal
The course is essentially practical and consists mainly of a series of exercises performed on a Full Mission Bridge simulator. This is coupled with classroom lectures to provide the necessary theoretical background for the exercises. Specific subject dealt with in these lectures are illustrated either by including them as part of an exercises or by separate simulator demonstration. All exercises can be saved and replayed in order to discuss with trainees actions they carried out.
Exercises are controlled by an instructor and initially, allow the trainees to become familiar with the equipment, the controls and the instrumentation provided by the simulator.
The exercises increase in complexity as the course progresses and as trainees become familiar with the maneuvering characteristics of the ship model and its response to the engine and helm in various conditions. The final exercises deal with the planning and execution of as coastal passage from port to port and will make use of the knowledge and skills learned in all of the previous exercises. Equipment failure or malfunction may be introduced during an exercise to afford trainees practice in taking emergency remedial action.
During exercises, trainees are expected to make use of effective bridge procedures, to comply with the International regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972 (COLREG 1972), to observe the basic principles of keeping a navigational watch, as set out in regulation II/1 of the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, 1978, as amended, and to be familiar with the maneuvering characteristics of the vessel and perform tests as stated in the IMO Resolution A.751(18), INTERIM STANDARDS FOR SHIP MANEUVERABILITY.
Each exercise will be preceded by a session for briefing and planning and be followed by a group discussion, led by the instructor, to analyze the actions and decisions of the trainees.
It is a fact that the way human beings interact, communicate and make decisions in such situations are quite similar. So management errors are also similar. The course was developed as a result of research, which showed that most accidents are caused not by technical errors but by lack of competence and confidence in ship handling.
Trainees should be a deck officer (operational or management level)